The communists can choose from among three systems of strategic weapons: revolution from within, revolution from without, and revolution from above through a coalition government. The technique of revolution from above will rarely be successful if it is applied separately, although unexpected opportunities can present themselves and must be taken advantage of. The expedient can demonstrate it is useful, always as a method of transition to reduce the cost of violence.
The revolution from without must be used against strong and intact countries t ha t can only be conquered by war. If there is a simultaneous combination, those systems find themselves in dialectical or reversible relationship. Revolution is a weapon of war: paramilitary forces support regular armies. Uprisings are an integral part of military strategy. Revolution is a military operation: uprisings must be organized and carried out as military endeavors.
It must be conducted in such a manner that it will provoke political and social changes in the enemy nation. Revolution from within makes revolution from without necessssary. The absence of failure of internal revolution makes war inevitable. The scale of nonviolence can rule itself. The socialist revolution has triumphed in a number of European and Asian states, and it has spread to the Western Hemisphere, winning in Cuba.
The world socialist system is the greatest 36 conquest of the working class after the October Revolution. But the communists will not be able to accomplish the tasks they have before them if they do not themselves act as a single cohesive international force. In the struggle for the reinforcement of this union, the international conference of communist and worker parties held last year has been a valuable help.
It is a matter of the policy of opportunists of the left, including the Trotskyites, who try to exchange the scientifically based Marxist line of the revolutionary line for adventurism. The peculiarity of the present phase of the revolutionary struggle resides in the fact that opportunism of the right and left interlink and in many cases merge with nationalist tendencies. The world revolutionary process progresses impetuously. Its successes will be greater as the Marxist-Leninist parties strengthen themselves and increase their influence.
The new victories of the revolution will be even more rapid when the great Marxist-Leninist ideas root themselves more in the minds of the masses. Under the banner of Leninism we shall achieve the complete victory of our just cause. It begins with the political destruction, the annihilation of the power of the capitalists, and the imposition of the power of the workers. All these subjects are discussed in "Fundamentals of Marxism-Leninism," and "Fundamentals of Marxist Philosophy," both books prepared by a group of the most prominent ideologists of the Soviet Union under the direction of 37 O.
Kuusinen and F. Konstantinov, respectively, officially published in Moscow in i and since then considered the orthodox version of USSR ideology throughout the world. In the second of the aforementioned books are collected the basic philosophical principles of Soviet ideology and its historical and dialectic materialism; and in the first, the overthrow of all the existing governments in noncommunist countries is openly proclaimed and a detailed explanation of the means and procedures for attaining this end is given.
In Lenin, on the other hand, there are repeated references to world revolution: "The principle of the Third Communist International is the preparatory phase for the International Soviet Republic, for the world victory of communism. This work is the universal proletarian revolution, the creation of a world republic of Soviets. The communist states themselves Yugoslavia, for example are in the line of fire of these objectives when they are not willing to subordinate themselves to the principles of Soviet ideology.
That was the reason the working class and every true revolutionary had the duty to defend and struggle for the USSR, even "before his own country: "A revolutionary," said Stalin, "is he who without reservations, without conditions, with honor and openness, without secret military councils is prepared to protect and defend the USSR because the USSR is the first revolutionary q,nd proletarian state in the world and the one that is building socialism.
The Leninist doctrine of universal revolution was then dusted off and refurbished once more, it being left to Khrushchev to exhibit it with the trappings of the imminent predomination of communist ideas in the world, a predomination which the capitalist countries unsuccessfully tried to contain. Our ideas will conquer all human minds We declare that the ideas of communism are incomparably stronger and more powerful and that they will win inevitably. I prophesy that. Do not fear for your grandchildren.
They marvel that their grandparents have not been able to understand such a progressive doctrine as the doctrine of scientific communism. Capitalism will inevitably disappear from the historical scene. In the final analysis, it will be that way in other countries, in the United States and England That is the inexorable path of historical development and none shall hold it back," and so forth. The victory of the universal communist revolution, that is, the victory of socialism and communism in the world--in the sense that the political and economic system of the USSR and other states of the Soviet bloc is understood to be--is, therefore, a basic objective of Soviet communism.
In the report prepared -in after officially visiting the various countries of Latin America, Nelson Rockefeller reflected the opinion it deserves of the communist subversion process in the hemisphere, evaluated from a global view. Occurring as it does at a time of an unsettling change, this brings a vague sense of unease to many that all the systems of society are out of control. With this panorama, all the American nations are a tempting target for communist subversion. Actually, it is very obvious t ha t this subversion is a reality with an alarming potential today. Fortunately, the governments of the American republics have gradually improved their capacity for confronting the rural Castro-type guerrillas.
This type of subversion is more difficult to control and the governments are forced to use increasingly repressive methods to confront it. It is thus that a cycle of terrorist actions and repressive actions tends to upset the political situation, creating a more fertile field for radical solutions among large sectors of the population.
AO "There are also Maoist communist forces in the hemisphere. Despite the fact that they are relatively small in number, they are fanatically dedicated to the use of violence and intimidation to achieve their ends. The mystique of Maoism has principally attracted the idealism of the young and has been, therefore, the means for generalized subversion. The recent visit by the Soviet fleet to Havana is evidence of the growing warmth of their relations. And the United States must be alert and concerned at the threat, which in the final analysis, it represents for the United States and the entire hemisphere.
I did not hesitate to enter into arrangements with the French monarchists. However, our interests coincided for some time. The possibility of establishing a parallel existence in the capitalist order and the communist order only refers to a certain period of growing socialist expansion and, therefore, restricted to the time it needs to become strong. That is why Chicherin, who headed the Soviet delegation to the Genoa Economic and International Conference of April , said that the USSR "without violating the principles of communism, recognized that in this historical period economic competition among the states that represent the two systems of property becomes an imperious necessity in attempting a general economic reconstruction.
Even the European countries must be maintained isolated among themselves. It hides behind its satellites. It gives nothing away for nothing. It indoctrinates native technicians. It pretends to be more than it is. It is accompanied by a wave of technician-propagandists. On the contrary, they are the best opportunities for accentuating it. Since the time of Lenin, and on repeated occasions, Soviet theoreticians have been calculating that the end of the transitory "peaceful coexistence" phase and the final victory of communism will come with the installation of a world communist state.
While the Worth American grand strategy since World War II has been defensive, Soviet grand strategy, on the other hand, has been offensive, aimed at the growing expansion and definitive victory of communist ideology throughtout the entire world. This is one of the instruments of the grand offensive strategy of the Soviet Union. The other is economic struggle, the occupation by socialism of first place in the world production as an industrial superpower. Then even the most skeptical will decide in favor of socialism. Those weapons and methods, carefully discussed and taught in Soviet schools of subversion under the direction of Department 12 "Deception" of the First Principal General Directorate of the KGB , even cover the falsification of state documents, to which is then given great publicity.
The famous "Berry Letter," which was commented on all over the world in ,91 is an example. For this purpose the Russians will have to force the United States to a strategic surrender, undermining U. If the people of the United States do not understand that their credibility is in play and that the greater their credibility the smaller will be the cost and the danger, their future will be very black.
Moscow, Peking or their agents ever so often, and wherever it best suits them, promote a new international conflict that leads the western countries to react in a purely defensive manner. Each new international crisis provoked by communism naturally pursues one immediate objective, however, it also has a purpose of greater scope within the grand strategic offensive: to confuse and weaken the alliance of the western countries, dividing them and distracting their attention from other aspects or zones of its interest.
As Strausz-Hupe said, it is a matter of a tactic that attempts to keep them "on the defensive," preventing them from taking any initiative in the "prolonged conflict" that communism wages against the West. Sun-Tze, Chinese strategist of the 5th century B. The death of Stalin was used to create the mirage of an impossible peaceful coexistence and it led to the postponement of NATO armament programs and reductions in the military budgets of its members, and so forth. On the contrary, it is a matter of competition in which each one wishes to demonstrate the superiority of its own method over that of the other.
Coexistence, disarmament, ideological pluralism and "detente" are tactical trickery in the vast psychopolitical offensive unleased by the USSR and with which it has managed to lull the attention of the West, making it conceive false illusions of an international harmony while it gains time and space which tilts the balance of forces in all areas in its favor more and more. Referring to those methods of deceit and subjection with brave frankness and a trace of pathetic irony, Solzhenitsyn, addressing the American people, and through them the rest of the free world, said: "Dissension as is being practiced only serves to strengthen the USSR and to give it the means with which one day it will destroy Western civilization They will soon be twice as powerful as you and then they will be five times stronger, and ten times stronger.
Some day they will say to you: 'We will advance with our troops in East Europe. If you react, we shall annihilate you. When they bury us alive, please do not send them the shovels and other modern equipment for burials. Based on this illusion and on the desire for making good "business deals by many businessmen, bankers and capitalists, the West is bent on the task of improving economic relations with the communist countries. This is the time when many U. Once more, therefore, the democracies are being gulled by the traditional policy of communist deceit.
To the tragic names of Teheran, Yalta and Potsdam, recent history has just added that of Helsinki. The label of "legals" comes from the fact that the agents are officially accredited before the authorities of the country in question, with "official" cover and can, therefore, reside legally as members of the "Soviet mission" in that country. Many of those agents are not even Soviet citizens, but of any nationality, previously found, selected and trained for carrying out their "tasks.
General ly there is a "rezident" or legal "rezidency" of the KGB and another of the GRU, and sometimes also, depending on the importance of the country, one in each city. Technical ' L Sen t Ion-1 j—. It is not only the orthodox Soviet communism which channels Marxist penetration toward Latin America. This is accomplished by the following: Helping the ambitious politician who his own party has forgotten. Grateful, he will later help the communists to obtain any little position no matter how modest; Teaching a union leader how to organize the workers.
Recognized, he will give jobs and will allow the founding of the machinery of his own party while he finishes off his democratic rivals. From the early years of the decade of the 6o's, it encourages terrorism so as to increase its influence in the Third World and raise the prestige of the Maoist concept of communism over that of the "petrified" concept of Soviet policy. Initially Mao supported the propaganda of Asian and African campaigns against "imperialism" and exploitation by the West. Then he began to provide active support in weapons and training to several insurgent groups. The campaign against the West is one thing which the communists do not neglect.
In he smuggled weapons into Indonesia and supported an attempt at a coup d'etat in which six generals of the Indonesian army were assassinated. In Burma, the Chinese communists led the "white flags," a military branch of the communist party previously under Soviet supervision. The Chinese communists provided weapons to the Thai liberation army and they controlled the insurgent groups of Malaysia.
They trained the Naga and Mizo rebels of northeast India and are the driving force behind the , Naga hillsmen, who through terror and pillage assail the entire western Bengal region. The vandalistic attack, which in it made against legendary Tibet, is a brazen example of the worst type of imperialism, colonialism and genocide to which, unfortunately, no one paid any attention.
Hundreds of landowners, cattlemen of the villages and former officials were tortured and murdered. The lamas and monks were persecuted with special savagery, yoked to plows and made to pull like beasts of burden or they were publicly whipped and beaten. In Africa and the Middle East, the rivalry between the Chinese and Russian communists was extremely intense. In the Persian Gulf, where oil was the reason for discord, they fight for the control of the Sultanate of Oman, where the former obtained--as they did in the Portuguese territory of Mozambique in Africa--greater successes than the latter, just as they did in Tanzania where they took over an old Soviet accomplishment when they placed red guards in the construction of a railroad for the goverment.
In short, Red China does not hesitate to use all the invisible methods of subversion, among others the large-scale production and sale of narcotics as a weapon of political war that tends to corrupt and subvert the western societies to facilitate the victory of world communist revolution. At the same time, however, this sinister activity is also a great business involving fantastic sums deriving from the drug traffic, which is based on the uncon- tainable demand by the world's drug addicts.
This is still to be demonstrated and this political aspect of the drug traffic is absolutely not within our purview; however, it is undeniable that the clandestine traffic in large quantities often means an enormous source of income that has a considerable effect on the economy of some countries. Mao and Lin Piao: directors of the great "cultural" revolution. The many accusations made in this respect, and which are periodically repeated, have not had a great effect since the traffic takes place secretly through a vast network of clandestine organizations and agents, to which even the "maffia" is no stranger, and is active in practically all countries of the West.
At one time Cuban territory was used as a base of operations for drug traffic to the United States as was shown by the seizure of a large shipment of Chinese opium in Miami in by U. Mao, among whose objectives was to expand his zone of political and econo mi c influence, not only in Asia and Africa but also in Latin America, placed his sights on the countries of this continent. Realistic politicians, the men who today direct the destinies of the enormous Asian empire, see g re at prospects among the Latin American peasants, basing themselves on their own revolutionary experience.
The peasants are much more numerous and also the poorest. If they served Mao Tse-tung for the conquest of China, why would they not serve for the conquest of the world? The guerrilla concepts of Guevara, as will be seen further on, had a strong Maoist influence, as did the Castro-communist guerrilla himself, who showed a greater inclination toward the Chinese line than toward the Soviet in this and other questions.
The laws of history are invariable. The hungry invade the fertile lands that are not fully used These considerations and many others of a similar nature, which could be made about the aggressiveness and tortuosity of communist tactics, must be ignored. Since time marches on, it will be the future that will tell the results of these relations with the second greatest power of the communist world--which to the great displeasure of the Soviets makes efforts to be the first--and the results of the activities that it may carry out in Latin America.
The reflection by Machiavelli is still fully applicable: 'Salvation that does not depend on yourself is of no account; only the factors that depend on you yourself and on your courage can be safe, certain and last- 2. Sino-Soviet Rivalry The growing expansionism of Chinese communism in Asia and Africa and the claims that the policy of Mao Tse-tung is an "authentic" communist line against the "bourgeois leanings" which it ascribes to Soviet policy, quickly gave way to a silent but profound rivalry between the two empires of world communism, rivalry which for years was reflected in a bitter public dispute, which shows no sign of disppearing but everything indicates will intensify.
At the bottom of this antagonism lies the profound contempt with which Chinese communism views the western world, particularly anything European. Then imagine the Mexican army with a growing capability to produce major nuclear arms. Then imagine them without any respect for human life and a concept of mass warfare which has changed very little since the times of Genghis Khan Although perhaps there are no other people less suited than the Chinese for absorbing Marxism, "their transitory coincidence originates in the fact that the theories of Marx were used to make the old empire asleep on cushions of pride, awaken on a bed of apparent vitality and make use of that demoralizing doctrine to destroy the foundations on which the western world rests.
It aspires to be a rallying point for all the colored races against the white race. A nation whose spirit drinks from the fountains of such a concept, sooner or later will have to clash with the other nations. Therefore, the frictions between Soviet Marxism, which is constituted on the basis of other races, and that competitor who has appeared in the communist camp, should not be a cause for surprise.
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Sino-Soviet rivalry, which many communists "lament," but which no one can hide, is based on different motives and on many circumstances of the actions that one or the other empire engaged in when attempting the conquest of the other noncommunist countries. The effects of that rivalry can be seen in the repeated political and diplomatic battles in Asia, Africa and the Middle and Far East and Latin America between the two factions in struggle, and also in the midst of the communist parties, in the international communist fronts, and the groups that aline themselves, whether it be under the leadership of Moscow or in the Maoist ranks.
The basic origins of war are actually the unreconcilable antagonisms that the capitalist system carries within itself. H6 Prague is occupied by the Soviet army, whose troops penetrated to Wenceslao Plaza in the face of popular hostility. While Marx and Engels maintained that with the foreseeable development of military technology, not only national but world wars would take place, which would give rise to an increasingly dangerous situation for the sector that wanted to carry out a campaign of war. The danger would be so great that no one would dare to begin a war.
Lenin defended the opposite idea: with the growth of imperialism in the last third of the 19 th Century and beginnings of the 20th, the risk of war not only increased but became inevitable. Conceived in an era in which imperialism had the power of a universal system on the one hand, the influence of the influence of the socialist area, which became a new and powerful force, the presence of other states not interested in making war, of "worker movements" and "universal freedom movements," on the other, caused the existence of a group of dynamic forces capable of preventing the imperialists from unleashing a war and for this reason the fatal inevitability of war no longer existed.
It was this new Soviet thesis on the evitability of war, adopted compulsorily by all the communist parties of the world in the resolution of the Communist International Conference of November and confirmed by the 21st CPSU Congress in January-February , which led to the impugnation by the Chinese communist party leaders. The possibility of catching the modern industrial states economically and of spreading communism through the "Soviet procedure" appears very remote.
On the other hand, every revolution brings greater difficulties for Moscow. Moscow is as little revolutionary as the capital of any great empire has been throughout history. This is exactly what the Chinese communists, as well and the Castroites and pro-Castroites reproach them for--although they do not say it openly. For them the communist parties are only bureaucratic almost inoffensive petit bourgeois deviations. Ideological differences between the two communist powers had profound effects on Latin American subversions, provoking bitter disputes and internal divisions in the very midst of the communist parties of the continent, some of which split, giving way to the formation of splinter groups oriented toward Peking and to even small parties and groups that separated from the mother organization.
Nevertheless, it is well not to be deceived. And it could not be otherwise because this policy considers the purposes of political and economic expansion throughout the world which are common to both imperialisms and in which differences are only different tactics, circumstantial accidents or pretexts in the struggle for first place 64 in the leadership of world communism, The dispute between China and the USSR is basically a dispute over the means and not the ends.
China and the USSR do not argue over the burial of the western countries, an objective both have set for themselves, but only on the best way to accomplish it. Mao and Lin Piao: the first public appearance proved that they had not displaced him in the exercise of power That the USSR has not given up--nor can it do so-according to Marxist-Leninist doctrine—universal revolution was once more placed in evidence around the middle of when some portions of the report by Boris Ponomarev, Soviet official in charge of the communist party affairs in countries other than the Soviet Union, leaked out.
The report attributes special importance to the Latin American revolutionary movement, acknowledging the "colossal role" played in it by Cuba. What appears to be the safe Worth American rearguard is becoming a formidable anti-imperialist center. A tremendously powerful revolutionary movement is developing near the main bastion of capitalism: the United States.
These changes are having, and undoubtedly will continue to have, a strong impact on the additional changes in the correlation of world powers in favor of socialism. The victory of the Popular Unity bloc in Chile, the revolutionary changes in Peru and the great successes obtained in the revolutionary struggle of Uruguay, as well as in other nations, leads us to believe that the revolutionary process of Latin America will continue to develop at a greater rate than in other parts of the nonsocialist world.
This is a true continental uprising. Despite the fact that it is perfectly well-known and even the tactics used by the uprisings are known, this is frequently forgotten and they begin once more. Meanwhile the enemy advances more and more. At this time that expansion covers a somber 40 percent of the entire planet, which leads one to think of the danger awaiting the rest of it. In Europe 8. In Asia, 30 million of its 44 million square kilometers and million of its 1. In Africa, no fewer than 20 million of its 30 million square kilometers and.
And in America, finally, communism has. As far as the real role of the communist "front" organizations previously mentioned is concerned, and the role of many others which will be mentioned at the proper time, it is important to establish this concept. Useful cretinism brings great benefits to communism, which skillfully makes use of it, particularly in propaganda campaigns aimed at confusing public opinion, using as bait the invocation to great principles such as peace, democracy, freedom, culture and so forth, principles with which people who are not necessarily communists are in agreement, but which appear associated, sometimes without it being noticed, with the plans and maneuvers of communist strategy.
Specific cases of this technique of communist propaganda exist everywhere, particularly in statements, proclamations, manifestos, exhortations, campaigns or positions of associations, groups, institutions, movements and so forth published by communist publicity organs and in which are featured intellectuals, writers, artists, professors, union leaders, politicians, and students in close proximity with more or less well-known communists, procommunists, philocommu- nists and cryptocommunists.
The objective of the manifesto—crowned by a huge public ceremony at the campus of the university under the slogan that the aforementioned treaty meant "compulsory military 67 service, repression of union freedoms, new taxes and intervention in a possible war," and so forth--was none other than that of exerting pressure on public opinion, political parties and parliament so that the treaty would not be ratified.
The communist is not only an individual who harbors certain opinions; he is the sworn supporter of well-pondered methods of action. He has studied the anatomy of discontent and revolution in all its aspects, and he has prepared a veritable manual for overthrowing all existing institutions. An alliance with any popular movement of leftist tendencies is sought. However, shortly after it is implanted, it must be overthrown.
The calamities and penuries derived from confusion must be exploited. Clashes, accompanied if possible by the shedding of blood between the agents of the new government and the workers must be provoked. Martyrs will be invented. Any sign of weakness in government leaders will be taken advantage of. Behind the guise of peaceful propaganda will be hidden hates never before seen among men. It will not even be necessary, nor will it be possible, to keep promises made to those who are not communists. Every act of good will, tolerance, or conciliation government leaders or statesmen will be used to bring about their own downfall.
The fortress must be taken by assault brandishing the banners of freedom and democracy. Once that machinery of power is in the hands of the brotherhood, they will proceed to crush all opposition, and even all dissidence, with death. There will be imposed on humanity, pursuant to dogmas learned in chorus, without mercy and for all times, the absolute dominion 68 exercised by a "priestly" class which has appointed itself as such.
All of this, expounded in books and also written in blood in the history of several powerful nations, is the doctrine and objective of communism. Havana, Communist Base in Latin America That initial support of a genuinely popular base is the explanation for the success of Castro, who not having a large army, a political party, the unions, the peasants or the middle-class businessmen supporting him, had behind him only the support of a couple of hundred supporters recruited from among the middle class and the students.
It was a victory which internationally communism skillfully capitalized on shortly afterward. Changing the direction of his original strategic-political concept of popular type but ideologically uncommitted, which meant for him the support of the majority of the people and even the sympathy of international opinion, Fidel Castro began to oscillate rapidly toward communism until he culminated with his famous public confession that Cuba was a Marxist-Leninist state.
Actually, that sudden turn must be attributed to the skill of communism, which would thus arrive into the government of a Latin American country for the first time, taking over the Castro movement from "within. The definitive victory of the communists was assured in July when the remnants of the Fidel Castro movement joined the Communist Party of Cuba and when members of the party occupied all the key posts of the resulting group. In the photograph he appears between Khrushchev and Brezhnev in the Lenin Mausoleum. However, Castro's "conversion" to communism was neither so sudden nor so surprising to those familiar with Cuban politics and the communist maneuvers in Latin America as might be deduced from a superficial recognition of the 72 popularity of the Castro movement.
Cuba offered it such possibility, as rapidly became evident in , during the "October crisis," with the installation of the Soviet missile bases in Cuba. Portell has exhumed this background material in connection with the recent and ostentatious reconciliation of the Peronist regime in Argentina and communist Cuba, and he comments: "Peron had always praised Castro and his communists from his asylum in ]Vfe,drid, and there is a certain logic to this renewed cordiality. In the final analysis it was the regime of Peron himself which, with the cooperation of the Soviet cultural attache in Havana, around about April , paid the costs of a trip to Bogota, Colombia, made at that time by a young student who had continually been flirting with the communists and who was well known for his skirmishes and violent actions.
The name of this student was Fidel Castro Ruz, now the dictator of communist Cuba. Castro took advantage of the confusion, as communism took advantage of him, until in the end they showed their teeth, resulting in the well known situation. The communizing of Cuba, however, did not occur overnight.
It began when Fidel Castro had barely taken possession of the island on 1 January The precise, detailed, anecdotal and documented history of this surrender of Cuba to the USSR was described 3 years later in masterful fashion by Monahan and Gilmore, in a book which retains a palpable timeliness and which reveals that what happened to the fatherland of Marti could very well happen to any other American country which does not examine the reality of 73 communist danger.
The thesis of Portell and other students of Castro communism was confirmed, moreover, by Castro himself when he confessed cynically in an address: " If we had undertaken to tell the people that we were Marxists when we were still in Sierra Maestra, and we were not strong yet, it is possible that we would never have been able to come down to the plains.
The process of the political-ideological "evolution" of Castroism clarifies the point, if we bear in mind five stages or phases through which it passed, which Amaro schematizes as follows: The first, or democratic phase, which began in with the founding of the 26 July Movement, and ended with the first economic and social laws approved shortly after the triumph of the Castro movement; The second, humanistic phase, which lasted a very short time, until the "purging" of the ranks of the movement arrest of Huber Mattos and other "comrades" in October of ; The third, or nationalistic phase, which lasted until the publication of the First Havana Declaration in ; The fourth, or socialist phase, which began with the approval of the nationalization decree of 13 October , in which Castro recognized Marxism-Leninism; and The fifth, or Marxist-Leninist phase, in which the Cuban dictator turned openly to the political-economic concepts of communism.
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It was beginning then and as a consequence of the failure of these expeditions that Castro was to revise his plans and define a strategy for transforming Cuba into the focus of Latin American subversion, as will be seen farther on. Subversion in Anglo Saxon America Subversion in regions of the hemisphere other than Latin America lies outside the scope of this study. However, and in order not to lose sight of what occurred in this connection in countries with a political and 74 cultural level and standard of living different from those in the Latin American nations, such as Canada and the United States, we are giving a brief picture of subversion in the two countries, for this constitutes yet another proof of the indiscriminate world convulsion instigated and promoted by communism against noncommunist countries, in accordance with its plans for universal domination, as well as the artificial nature of the thesis of the inevitable outbreak of revolution in the colonial and underdeveloped countries of the third world, subject to the exploitation of "imperialism," which it is the role of the guerrilla forces to launch.
This is the reason for providing a summary survey of the manifestations of subversion in the two large Anglo Saxon nations in the hemisphere in the following paragraph. Canada Two sensational kidnappings — one of which was to culminate in murder — riveted the Canadian and world public in the autumn of , during the so-called "October crisis.
This movement, founded in by a group of terrorist fanatics in university circles, suggestively servile to the ideas of Castro and Guevara, had given earlier indications of its presence and announced its goal of separating Quebec from the rest of Canada to establish a radical socialist state. The firm determination of the Canadian Government not to negotiate with the terrorists nor to submit to their blackmail led to the assassination of Laporte, to the consternation of the general public. A communique broadcast by the FLQ over the radio station CKAC on the morning of the Sunday following the kidnapping warned that Laporte would be "executed" if the demands of the kidnappers were not met by hours on 75 that day.
In view of the refusal of the authorities, they murdered him by strangulation. The commotion created by this barbarous crime forced the government to seek parliamentary authorization to establish martial law, in order to be able to wage an efficient battle against the increasing terrorism. Prime Minister Pierre Elliot Trudeau said the following in this connection to the House of Commons: "I realize, as I hope that others do, that this extreme position to which the government has been forced represents to some extent a trap.
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Forcing the authorities to adopt inflexible positions is a well known technique of the revolutionary groups which are attempting to destroy society by means of unjustified violence. The revolutionaries then make capital of any evidence of presumed authoritarianism as justification for their need to have recourse to violence. It provides the citizens with a peaceful means of choosing or rejecting those who govern them.
And the first responsibility of those who have been chosen lies in taking care that this freedom is kept intact, that no one degrades nor usurps it. The principle we must safeguard is the very principle which authorizes these changes. There are many restrictions under which we must suffer in the normal course of our lives, and if necessary, we will have to impose others upon ourselves.
This is the highest price we can pay, except for giving our lives in defense of it. However, freedom is well worth this sacrifice. The democracy which encompasses and safeguards our freedom is not an impotent, passive or blind democracy, nor is it in retreat either. It has no intention of yielding to the savage fantasies of its adversaries.
Nor is it prepared to approve its own destruction in advance. It has already shown the strength and the clarity of which it is capable. Similarly, to my way of thinking, the Canadian people have shown that they well know what the price of this freedom is. United States In the United States, the authorities admitted at the beginning of that "it would be an exaggeration to state that a full scale guerrilla war is in progress at the present time, but without a doubt guerrilla actions are being carried out.
The total number of adamant revolutionaries as estimated in that period by the authorities was not, in their view, very large, perhaps not exceeding 4, But the general uncertainty and fear for their lives and activities of themselves created a serious situation. Helmets and protective masks for the face, armored vehicles. Our police stations are becoming fortresses defended with barricades.
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The courts of our nation are being provided with armed guards. Searches for bombs are now routine operations. Barely a month has passed since the police discovered a new guerrilla band training to attack it. At the end of , after two New York policemen had been seriously wounded by a burst of machinegun fire, a group calling itself the "Black Liberation Army," of which absolutely nothing was known, sent the TIMES, a New York daily newspaper, the license plates of a vehicle stolen for their flight, with a note saying: "The armed fascists of this racist government will find themselves faced with the weapons of the oppressed people of the third world again.
The tactics of these U. For this reason, bombs and explosive artifacts have been the main weapons of choice. In the state of Washington alone in 1 year, no fewer than 1, attacks of a guerrilla type against police agents occurred. Then they either allow the difficulties and the feelings aroused in the crowd to pursue their course, or they take advantage of the circumstances to perpetrate some previously prepared act of violence.
In April of , for example, a crowd gathered at Stanford University for the purpose of holding a 'demonstration' in protest against the dismissal of a janitor at the hospital of this educational institution. They occupied a part of the building, tore out the telephones and destroyed documents and furniture, causing considerable damage.
The result was a display of urban guerrilla "attack and retreat" tactics which lasted in this case for 4 days. Extremist elements patrolled the streets overturning automobiles, slashing tires, setting fires and attacking the police. Virtually all of the U. The Black Panthers, for example, call themselves a "Marxist-Leninist party," although it has taken on a peculiarly North American tint.
The Weathermen praise Mao Tse-tung and the "Chinese style," but they also observe the "Cuban model," in which guerrilla fighters become the vanguard of the new order. The same can be said of the recently publicized SLA [Symbionese Liberation Army], which during the greater part of waged a campaign of murder and terror, shocking the whole world with the kidnapping of Patricia Hearst, the daughter of the rich owner of a U. The American authorities have noted the numerous visits paid by the best known U.
In the heated anti-American speech delivered by Carmichael at that meeting, he described the activities being pursued by "black power" in the cities of the United States since the Watts rebellion in Los Angeles on 18 August We are in the city. With our rebellions we have transformed ourselves into a force of 78 destruction in the flow of services, goods and capital. This was the date on which we decided that weapons are the only answer," etc. Uprising in Los Angeles: The scene appears to be made in Hollywood, though this time it is reality. Henceforth MLN-T.
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Great strategic operational unit of the FA consisting of tactical units of the army, air force, navy and police. Henceforth FC. Henceforth BF. On the time that the FA took charge of the antisubversive struggle and the social, economic and political conditions of Uruguay at the time and the strategy with which they undertook that struggle, see installment II: "The Political Process.
That is the way a voluminous material on "tortures" was prepared.
The reader will find extensive references to it in this book. One of the last attempts to discredit the FC under that false imputation was the pamphlet "Torture in Uruguay" published in Caracas in June A the self-styled "Committee of Information on Repression in Uruguay. I am as if suspended in time and space The problem is to remain normal Letter from Fly to his wife dated 10 December Dubra Naranjo, Alba E.
And I do not propose to progress in this manner because it pleases me but because there is no other path, because history has not provided something more pleasant. Committees for Tupamaro Support. Henceforth CNT. Elliot R. See the sharp commentary made in this respect by H. Chapter II, Nos 55 and subsequent. Report by the Minister of Interior, 4 October , Montevideo, Quoted report.
Resolution dated 12 October , to which the communist press and the leftist propaganda media later referred to as "the big decree. Lenin, "Toward the Seizure of Power. White Book on the change of government in Chile, H September , general secretariat of the government. Republic of Chile, Santiago, See particularly the facsimili reproduction of the handwritten letter from Castro to Allende dated 29 July , secret documents, appendix I, pp and. Altogether 88 communist 81 parties are active in the world of which 9 are in East Europe, 20 in West Europe, 4 in Communist Asia, 20 in noncommunist Asia, 2 in Oceana, 23 in Latin America, 2 in North America, and 8 in Africa, with some 42 million members.
Of these parties, 12 are in power, 35 function legally, 31 illegally, and 6 are in a "semilegal" condition. Alfred C. Meyer, "Leninism," Cambridge, Mass. Carew Hunt, Conditions 1, 2, Infra. In this respect see the excellent analysis of Thomas P. One of the primary targets of the tactic of the "united front" are the "intellectuals," a term under which the communists include writers, teachers, artists and scientists. Sovetskaya vlast, or "Soviet power," dictatorship that effectively invests Soviet power, enormous power, but which is not the dictatorship of the proletariat, but that of a small number of persons.
Since the Nazi 22 June attack on Russia, at that time "partner" of Hitler's National Socialism, through the German-Soviet Pact of , brought the entry of Russia into the second world war, the USSR in a purely tactical and temporary tactic suppressed the Comintern and created a "unity" with the western powers who then became its "allies. The Cominform was dissolved in turn by Nikita Khruschev on 17 April to curry favor with Tito and bring him once more to the Soviet flock.
Allusive and indirect phraseology used by communism in its documents to deceive the noncommunists and to impose the victory of its line or plans, also called "slave language" in a reference to Aesop, who the communists maintain was a serf who wrote his famous fables to ridicule his masters without them being aware that he was doing it.
Jeane J. Abba P. According to that treaty, Russia ceded a substantial part of its territory to Germany as a price for ending the war. Lenin explained, when the opposition complained, that he had no intention of respecting the treaty and that he was only "exchanging space for time," as it turned out. Russia in the Raw, Published by Cenit S.
Hugh Seton-Watson, op. Stefan T. Possony, "A Century of Conflicts. Report on the international situation and the main tasks of the Communist International in the 2nd Congress, in "On the Struggle for Peace," cit. Goodman, "Soviet Plan for a World State," op. Interview with the U.
The exclusion of military means must be taken with great care, given the cases in which the USSR has made use of force and oppression to expand annexed territories of East Poland, Southeast Finland, Bessarabia, northern Bukovina, Soviet zone of Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria , and because the use of this means will depend primarily on circumstances and the resistance it may encounter from other powers, particularly the United States. Then the ideas of communism will enter into the minds of men, not only through the study of Marxism-Leninism, but also through our example.
The workers of all countries will then see that only communism guarantees a profusion of material and spiritual goods. That is why victory shall be ours'. However, the revolutionary situations do not always result in revolution by themselves. This entry, but for reasons of explains why compound words, which are composed of two or more preexisting words, are listed in almost all cases under the entry of their initial constituent, at the end of the corresponding grammatical category.
Thus, doghouse is listed as —house, under There are certain exceptions to this convention, however. First, compounds are listed under the headword of their second constituent when. Thus, to have a good time, glossed divertirse, is. Second, English compounds whose first element is a preposition offsides outcast, overcome are listed as separate headwords, chiefly ,.
Conversely, derived words, that is, words that contain one or more affixes e. Appearing together with the compound words per- tinent to any given grammatical category are illustrative phrases, a category de- fined so as to include idioms, collocations, proverbs, and, especially, sentences required to clarify usage in some way, as when the usage of gustarle a uno as a gloss of to like is illustrated by the phrase he likes dogs, with the translation le. Para la. Los significados dentro de una entrada aparecen ordenados de manera que el frecuente figure primero.
Por ejemplo, el equivalente de acceso en casi todas sus acepciones es access, excepto cuando se refiere a un ataque de tos o rabia, en cuyo caso se traduce como fit. El uso del punto y coma indica acepciones distintas. De tal forma, hombre rana aparece como — rana, en la entrada de hombre. Hay ciertas excepciones a esta regla, sin embargo. No obstante, las palabras derivadas, i. Spanish orthography very closely mirrors Spanish pronunciation, much more so than is the case in English.
This explains why, in bilingual dictionaries such as this, each English entry must be accompanied by a phonetic representation, while Spanish pro- nunciation may be presented in synoptic form. This synopsis is only meant as an introduction, however. In spite of the clarity. For these reasons, readers who wish to perfect their pronunciation of Spanish are strongly advised to seek the help of a competent teacher. To say that orthography mirrors pronunciation means that there is a close cor- relation between letters and sounds. Thus, most Spanish letters correspond to a single sound, or to a single family of closely related sounds, as is the case for all vowels, and the consonants f, l, m, n, p, t, and s.
In a few cases a single letter represents two very different sounds, as c, which is pronounced as k before a, o, and u, but th as in thin, or as s in America before e or i. The overarching differences between Spanish and English pronunciation are tense- ness of articulation and syllabification within the breath group. Due to the tenseness of their articulation, for example, all Spanish vowels have a clear nondiphthongal character, unlike English long vowels, which tend to be bipartite e.
Syllabification is a problem for English speakers because in Spanish, syllables are formed without respect to word boundaries, such that el hado 'fate' and helado 'ice cream' are both pronounced as e-la-do, and the phrase tus otras hermanas 'your other sisters' is syllabified as tu-so-tra-ser-ma-nas. In fast speech, vowels may combine, as in lo ofendiste 'you offended him', pronounced lo-fen-dis-te.
Finally, when Spanish con- sonants occur in clusters, very often the articulation of the second influences that of the first, as when un peso 'one peso'is pronounced um-pe-so, and en que 'in which'. As a part of a diphthong, it sounds like the y of English yes, year. Examples: bien, baile, reina. Notably, a is similar to the always pronounced this way, even when not stressed.
This contrasts with the English tendency to reduce unstressed vowels to schwa [a] , as in America, pro- nounced in English as [a-me-ri-ka]. Examples: cura, agudo, uno. When u occurs in diphthongs such as those of cuida, cuento, deuda, it has the sound of w as in way. At the beginning of a breath group or when preceded by the m sound which may be spelled n , they are both pro- nounced like English b. Examples: bomba, en vez de, vine, invierno. In other environments, especially between vowels, both letters are pronounced as a very. This sound has no equivalent in English.
Examples: haba, uva, la vaca, la banda. However, this sound is not ac-. Examples: casa, cosa, cuna, quinto, queso, crudo, aclamar. Note that, as mentioned above, the vowel u is not pronounced in quinto and queso. In contrast, when appearing before the vowels e and i, c is pronounced as s in. Spanish America and the southwest of Spain, and as th as in thin in other parts of Spain see s for more information. However, it represents a single sound, which is similar to the English ch in church and cheek. Examples: chato, chaleco, mucho.
In terms of articulation, it is pronounced by the tongue striking the teeth rather than the alveolar ridge as in English. Second, it is represented by two variants. The first of these, which is similar to that of English dame and did, occurs at the beginning of breath groups or after n and 1. Examples: donde, falda, conde.
In all other situations the letter rep- resents a sound similar to the th of English then. Examples: hado, cuerda, cuadro, usted. This sound tends to be very relaxed, to the point of disappearing in certain environments, such as word-final and intervocalic. Examples: gente, giro. At the beginning of breath groups before the vowels a, o, u, and before the consonants 1 and r, it is pronounced like the g of English go. Examples: ganga, globo, grada. In all other environ- ments it is pronounced as a very relaxed-. Examples: lago, la goma, agrado. Examples: kilo, keroseno. Examples: lado, ala, sol.
II is no longer considered to be a separate letter in the Spanish alphabet. However, it does represent a single sound, which differs widely in pronunciation throughout the Spanish-speaking world. In most areas, pronounced like the y of Eng. In extreme northern Spain and in parts of the Andes, it sounds like the lli in Eng.
In the River Plate area it is pronounced like. Examples: madre, mano, cama. Examples: no, mano, hablan. There are exceptions, however. For example, before b, v, p, and m, it is pronounced m, as in en Barcelona, en vez de, un peso, while before k, g, j, ge-, and gi-, it is realized as [q], the final sound of Eng. Examples: caro, tren, comer. In contrast, at the beginning of words, and after n, 1, s, the letter r is realized as a trill, as in rosa, Enrique, alrededor, Israel.
The double letter rr always represents a trill, as in carro, correr, guerrero. America and in parts of southern Spain. In most of Spain, in contrast, it is realized with the tip of the tongue against the alveolar ridge, producing a whistling sound that is also common in southern dialects of American English.
Examples: solo, casa, es. In these dialects, esta may be pronounced as ehta or eta. Between vowels, it is usually pro- nounced ks or gs but never gz , as in examen, proximo, though in a few words it is pronounced as s, e. Before a consonant, x is almost always. In most areas it is pronounced like the. In the River Plate area it is pronounced like the g in beige or the sh in ship. Examples: yo, ayer. In most parts of Spain, except the southwest, it is pronounced as the th in Eng. In southwestern Spain and all of Spanish America, in contrast, it is pronounced s.
Examples: zagal, hallazgo, luz. Spanish words are normally stressed on the next-to-last syllable when they end in a vowel or the consonants n or s. Examples: mesa, zapato, aconteci mien to, hablan, mujeres. Words whose pronunciation does not conform to this rule are considered exceptions, and their stressed syllable is indicated with an accent mark.
Conversely, Spanish words are normally stressed on the final syllable when they end in a consonant other than n or s. Examples: mujer, actuali dad, pedal voraz. For the purposes of stress assignment, diphthongs are considered the same as simple vowels. Thus, arduo and industria are considered to have two and three syllables respectively, with regular stress on the penultimate However, some syllable.
Thus, the orthography esta was assigned to the demonstrative adjective 'this', fem. This convention is no longer observed by most writers. All Spanish nouns, not just those that denote male or female beings, are assigned either masculine or feminine gender. As a general rule, male beings mu- chacho "boy', toro 'bull' and nouns ending in -o lodo 'mud' are assigned all. Otherwise, nouns ending in con-.
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Where the masculine noun does not end in -o, the. Finally, some words vacillate as to gender, e. The equivalent of English the is as follows: masculine singular, el; Definite Article. In spite of this, these nouns remain feminine in the singular, as shown by adjective.